The Singapore Family Physician
Back to issue Vol 39 No. 1 - Sexual Health
A REVIEW OF THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV) AND SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS (STI) - GLOBALLY AND IN SINGAPORE
The Singapore Family Physician Vol 39 No 1 - Sexual Health
21 - 26
1 January 2013
In recent years HIV infections have declined in many parts of the world, however, there are still 35 million persons living with HIV infection and 2.1 million new infections occurred in 2011 worldwide. In many areas HIV continues to affect certain at risk communities viz. men who have sex with men, sex workers, clients of sex workers and injecting drug users. In Singapore the number of newly diagnosed HIV infections appears to have stabilised, however the current trend is that infected individuals are presenting at a late stage of infection and more HIV infections are being diagnosed among MSM and fewer in heterosexuals. The trend for other sexually-transmitted infections is generally stable, with gonorrhea, Chlamydia trachomatis infection and anogenital herpes showing decreases, whilst the incidence of syphilis showed an increase in 2012. Interviews with patients attending the DSC Clinic indicate that most STIs are contracted locally from casual partners. Unregulated sex workers are more frequently cited as primary contacts than are local regulated sex workers, who continue to have very low levels of STIs, underlining the benefits of the programme of routine screening, treatment and condom negotiation skills training provided by the Department of STI Control (DSC) Clinic in Singapore.